The first hit of the ball can be called a catch, if the action consists of catching and throwing - i.e. the ball contact with any part of the body is prolonged. If the ball touches several parts of the body one after the other in one action, no fault is committed.
9.2.2 The ball must not be caught and/or thrown. It can rebound in any direction.
220.127.116.11 at the first hit of the team, the ball may contact various parts of the body consecutively, provided that the contacts occur during one action.
The 3 minutes are measured from the end of one set to the first service of the following set. This means that the second referee must call the players back onto the court after 2.5 minutes.
18.1 An interval is the time between sets. All intervals last three minutes.
During this period of time, the change of courts and line-up registrations of the teams on the score sheet are made.
For example, if a player has to tie his shoelace, he should not raise his hand to alert the referee, but tie the shoelace as quickly as possible. Raising the hand and waiting for a reaction from the referees will further delay the game and may be penalized as a delay.
Players who are not on the court must either sit on the bench or be in the warm-up area. Standing in front, behind or on the bench is not allowed. Only if the CEV court layout is used (warm-up area behind the benches), standing behind the bench is, of course, allowed.
4.2.1 The players not in play should either sit on their team bench or be in their warm-up area. The coach and other team members should sit on the bench, but may temporarily leave it
If a ball lands out and the referees are not sure whether the ball was touched by a blocking or defending player, the ball has to be given out because a touch was not clearly recognizable.
Referees may only call faults as they see them. A replay should only be given if two faults of opposing teams happen at the same time or if no decision can be made by the referee.
Teams are often dissatisfied when there are decisions against them. Very quickly they feel disadvantaged and believe that the referees deliberately disadvantage your team, especially close in-out decisions. Every referee can only do his best and make a decision according to his perception.
Derek Thompson commented on this topic very well in a blog: If you have three decisions against you and the opposing team has none against you, then you should consider the following: