1 Introduction


This online refereeing course is designed for upcoming referees and active referees who want to refresh or deepen their knowledge. Through illustrations and videos, the rules and their interpretation will be illustrated and a broader knowledge should be created. This course can and should never replace a real referees' course! In most cases the rules are not quoted, but the explanations and examples should help to better understand and implement the rules. You can download the rules on the FIVB homepage. All explanations are based on the FIVB rules.

Texts and pictures are published under:


Videos are published under:

The Creative Commons Licenses used for publication are the CC-BY-NC-SA (see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/legalcode.de) license for text and images, which allows the work to be published elsewhere (possibly modified) if the original source is cited. Commercial use is excluded and it may only be published under the same license. Videos are published under BY-NC-ND (attribution, non-commercial, no editing; see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode.de).

Contact: volleyball@schirmbacher.at